To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those localities with no coordinates, 'Bogota skins' and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 221 m and above 2,500 m.
The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in serrania del Baudo, most of the Central Andes and the western slope of the Eastern Andes. Exception of some few sections of the Central Andes, those areas are not known to be occupied by this species and were deleted from our final potential distribution map. It is important to highlight that in the southwestern Andes there was an area not predicted as suitable by our model but that might be likely suitable and this was noted in our maps. Furthermore, in the northern end of the Western and Central Andes predictions were slightly fragmented, it is possible that there are more areas suitable for the species in that zone in a continuous belt. Nevertheless, these areas were not highlighted in our maps.
Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated plus the areas not predicted but likely suitable, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 22,448 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 62 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.
This near-endemic species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2017) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. It is considered to be common (McMullan & Donegan 2014) and its extent of occurrence has been estimated in 296,000 km2 (BirdLife International 2017), which is possibly much bigger than its actual size. Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence just in Colombia is about 59,739 km2. However, forested areas have been severely degraded in is potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest and therefore we believe it must be considered as Near Threatened (NT) at national level in Colombia.
Most of the distribution of this near-endemic is in Colombia and the species is very poorly known (HBW Alive 2017). It needs urgently further research to know better its ecology.
Regularized training gain is 2.469, training AUC is 0.979, unregularized training gain is 2.817.
Algorithm terminated after 2000 iterations (63 seconds).
The follow settings were used during the run:
165 presence records used for training.
10163 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).
Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co
Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.050, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.000, hinge: 0.500
Feature types used: hinge product linear threshold quadratic
'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:
0.066-0.085-Fractional predicted area
0.067-0.042-Training omission rate