Urosticte benjamini


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as 'Bogota skins', those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 248 m and above 2,681 m.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in the Central Andes and the western slope of the Eastern Andes, also in serrania del Baudo. Except some areas in the northern Central Andes from were it has been recorded in recent years, those areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 23,682 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 55 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.

This near-endemic species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2016) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. It is considered to be fairly common (Hilty & Brown 1986) and its extent of occurrence has been estimated in 35,600 km2 (BirdLife International 2016), which is probably smaller that it true size. Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence just in Colombia is about 52,163 km2. Although forested areas have been fairly degraded in is potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest, possibly its range and populations are still big enough not to be considered as threatened.


Regularized training gain is 2.492, training AUC is 0.974, unregularized training gain is 2.783.

Algorithm converged after 980 iterations (29 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

67 presence records used for training.

10067 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.144, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.330, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge linear quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:

9.278-11.379-Cumulative threshold

0.113-0.141-Logistic threshold

0.095-0.083-Fractional predicted area

0.090-0.104-Training omission rate