Penelope argyrotis


The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed a few areas that are suitable in climatic terms for this species west of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in northern Atlantico and Bolivar, in serrania de San Lucas, in the central Andes in Antioquia and in the southern Andean region in Nariño. These areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this guan.

There are few records placed in the southern Central Andes and west of it that seem to be corrupted. These accessions were removed when modelling the distribution of this species. Similarly, we removed all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations out of the range within 250-2,800 m.

Distribution of specimens, according to BioMap, suggests a possible narrow area (≈ 941 km2) of intergradation between subspecies argyrotis and albicauda in northern Norte de Santander and southern Cesar. It is not clear where lies the limit of the distribution of both subspecies and might be that this area is wider. This is suggested by the fact that two specimens from Buenos Aires in Norte de Santander, collected in September 1946 and deposited in the National Museum of Natural History have been identified each as one of those subspecies; this needs further revision.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 15,217 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 64 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation. From the three subspecies known to occur in Colombia possibly argyrotis is the one that have better chances of surviving human pressures since it has a potential area of occupancy in forested areas of ≈ 8,238 km2. Additionally, its distribution extends into Venezuela where must be other potential areas. Differently, the subspecies colombianus and albicauda have much smaller potential distributions in forested areas in Colombia, having each 5,951 km2 and 1,478 km2 respectively. The subspecies columbianus occurs only in Colombia, while albicauda extends its range into the slopes of Perija in the Venezuelan side. It is known that this guan uses secondary forests and shade coffee plantations (Hilty & Brown, 1986), which may favour its conservation. However, it is not clear to which extent it needs patches of forest in relative good conservation state and this needs research. Both taxa deserve some conservation attention in the country if it is wished to secure its survival in Colombia.


Regularized training gain is 3.339, training AUC is 0.990, unregularized training gain is 3.696.

Algorithm converged after 800 iterations (22 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

33 presence records used for training.

10033 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.241, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.670, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: linear quadratic hinge

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:


10.46-13.831-Cumulative threshold

0.056-0.092-Logistic threshold

0.051-0.035-Fractional predicted area

0.061-0.091-Training omission rate