Oxypogon stubelii


To elaborate our model we removed all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 3,168 m and above 4,800 m. Also a record in DatAves from Ucumari (Risaralda), which possibly represents corrupted information in the database or a misplaced locality.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed extensively areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in the Central Andes south of the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanoes Complex, and in the highest portions of the northern Western Andes. Those areas are not known to be occupied by this hummingbird and were deleted from our final potential distribution map.

This species, sometimes considered a subspecies of the complex Oxypogon guerinii-stubelii-cyanolaemus has been catalogued as Vulnerable (VU) by BirdLife (2016). According to BirdLife (2016) it does not approach to the thresholds to be categorised as Endangered (EN), although they estimate its extent of occurrence in 4,100 km2. We do believe this evaluation is incorrect. Our maps suggest an extent of occurrence of 1,655 km2, which is well below the threshold of 5,000 km2 and this combined with the fact that the paramo areas in Colombia are extremely fragmented and continue being burned and transformed for crops or cattle breeding, suggests this species must be recategorised as Endangered (EN), this despite the fact it occurs within the borders of the National Park Los Nevados and its buffer zone.


Regularized training gain is 4.857, training AUC is 0.997, unregularized training gain is 5.016.

Algorithm converged after 660 iterations (63 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

44 presence records used for training.

10044 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.210, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.560, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge linear quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:

0.910-6.269-Cumulative threshold

0.010-0.092-Logistic threshold

0.019-0.008-Fractional predicted area

0.023-0.023-Training omission rate