Coeligena helianthea


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 1,500 m and above 3,516 m. Also eight records in BioMap from Antioquia, Cauca, Arauca and Amazonas, which represent corrupted information in the database were deleted.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed a few areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in the northern and southern Central and Western Andes. Those areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 9,638 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 75 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation. Nonetheless, this figure may be slightly overestimated since its distribution may include some areas of paramo.

This near-endemic species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2016) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. Its extent of occurrence has been estimated in 42,100 km2 (BirdLife International 2016). Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence is about 38,443 km2 in Colombia; not including serrania del Perija, from where there are no known records. However, forested areas have been severely degraded in is potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest. It is believed to be common, although its population has not been quantified yet (BirdLife International 2016). Giving that the species uses border and secondary habitats possibly its populations have not been greatly affected. Nonetheless, forest degradation and fragmentation continues along its potential range and therefore we believe it must be considered as Near Threatened (NT). This species is not very well known and needs further research of its general ecology.


Regularized training gain is 3.167, training AUC is 0.989, unregularized training gain is 3.442.

Algorithm converged after 1760 iterations (71 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

94 presence records used for training.

10092 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.093, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.060, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge product linear threshold quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:

8.017-8.499-Cumulative threshold

0.116-0.125-Logistic threshold

0.044-0.042-Fractional predicted area

0.043-0.074-Training omission rate