Chaetocercus jourdanii


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as 'Bogota skins', those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 568 m and above 2,582 m. Also one record from Minca (Magdalena), which represents corrupted information in the database was deleted previously to modelling.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the Western Andes, Central Andes and the southern portion of the Eastern Andes. Those areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Records from the Cundinamarca (EBIRD 2016) represent a possible extension of the range to the south in the Eastern Andes. Nonetheless, these records need further confirmation with bird collections or photographic material. These potential areas were highlighted in our maps as suitable but not included in the most restricted version of the geographical range of this species in Colombia.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated (restricted version), its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 8,625 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 59 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.

This species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2016) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. It favours edges and secondary vegetation, also can be seen in plantations and gardens, and therefore we believe that possibly deforestation has not negatively affected greatly its populations. However, it is considered to be local (McMullan & Donegan 2014). Otherwise, its extent of occurrence is big and has been estimated in 376,000 km2 (BirdLife International 2017), most of it in Venezuela. Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence just in Colombia is about 21,197 km2. Forested areas have been fairly degraded in its potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest. Forest degradation and fragmentation continues along its potential range and therefore we believe it must be considered as Near Threatened (NT) at national level in Colombia. Similarly as other species of the genus it needs further research to know better its ecology and dependency on forest remnants.


Regularized training gain is 2.606, training AUC is 0.987, unregularized training gain is 3.242.

Algorithm converged after 760 iterations (32 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

21 presence records used for training.

10020 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.423, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.790, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge linear quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:


20.595-13.038-Cumulative threshold

0.219-0.127-Logistic threshold

0.047-0.074-Fractional predicted area

0.048-0.000-Training omission rate