Odontophorus atrifrons


Coordinates from 10 accessions in BioMap from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Perija and Santander (located in places with elevations above 2,700 m) were moved slightly (centecimals of a degree) to make localities lay down in sites fitting better the elevation specified in each record or, in cases were the observed elevation was missing, to keep the specific locality within the upper elevational limit of the species (≈ 2,500 m).

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent predicted a few areas in Alta Guajira, northern Atlantico and Bolivar, central southern Bolivar, central and west Boyaca, southeastern Cundinamarca, eastern Cauca and in the Pacific slope of the Andes in Nariño. These areas are not known to be occupied by this wood-quail and were trimmed off from the final version of our potential distribution map.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the areas predicted as suitable (i.e. marginally suitable, suitable and highly suitable), its potential distribution today in remnants of forest is about 9,561 km2, which corresponds to a loss of ≈ 57 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.

Subspecies variegatus, only occurring in Colombia, may be possibly present in approximately 3,973 km2 of forest remnants, which corresponds to a loss of ≈ 64 % of its potential original distribution. Nonetheless, if its distribution was limited historically mainly to the western slope of cordillera Oriental then it may be possibly present in just approximately 1,089 km2 of forest remnants, which corresponds to a loss of ≈ 72 % of its potential original distribution. It is interesting to note that there is one record from the eastern slope very close to the boundary of the western slope. According to some authors (HBW Alive, 2015) this subspecies might be extinct. Thus, it is very important for its conservation to define if it still exists in any remnants of the northern Eastern Andes. Similarly, subspecies navai has lost about 72 % of its potential original distribution, remaining some 793 km2 of forested areas where it may be present. The distribution of navai extends into Venezuela, where must be other potential areas. However, considering the extent of fragmentation in its possible area of occupancy this subspecies may be near extinct in Colombia. Otherwise, possibly atrifrons is the subspecies that has better chances of surviving human pressures since it has a potential area of occupancy in forested areas of ≈ 8,078 km2. most of it protected by the Sierra Nevada National Park. Both navai and variegatus need urgent conservation attention if it is intended its survival in Colombia.


Regularized training gain is 3.693, training AUC is 0.994, unregularized training gain is 4.004.

Algorithm converged after 560 iterations (16 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

23 presence records used for training.

10023 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.385, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.770, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: linear quadratic hinge

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:


9.029-10.672-Cumulative threshold

0.086-0.11-Logistic threshold

0.029-0.025-Fractional predicted area

0.043-0.043-Training omission rate