Urochroa leucura


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 436 m and above 2,681 m.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in the head of the Magdalena Valley and in the central-northern portion of the Western Andes (occupied by bougueri), also slightly towards the western slope of the Central Andes in that section (occupied by bougueri). Those areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 7,698 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 22 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.

This near-endemic species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2016) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. It is considered to be locally common (McMullan & Donegan 2014, HBW Alive 2016) and its extent of occurrence has been estimated in 164,000 km2 (BirdLife International 2016), which probably is wrong. Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence just in Colombia is about 9,913 km2. Forested areas have not been severely degraded in is potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest. Giving that the species uses border and secondary habitats possibly its populations have not been greatly affected. Nonetheless, forest degradation and fragmentation continues along its potential range and therefore we believe it must be considered as Near Threatened (NT) at national level in Colombia.

Often considered conspecific of Urochroa bougueri.


Regularized training gain is 3.793, training AUC is 0.995, unregularized training gain is 4.313.

Algorithm converged after 800 iterations (21 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

21 presence records used for training.

10021 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.423, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.790, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge linear quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:

9.268-14.924-Cumulative threshold

0.070-0.124-Logistic threshold

0.034-0.022-Fractional predicted area

0.048-0.095-Training omission rate