Urochroa bougueri


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 436 m and above 2,681 m. Also one record in BioMap from Ricaurte assigned mistakenly to the same name locality in Cundinamarca and not in Nariño was deleted before modelling.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed areas suitable in climatic terms for this species along the Central Andes and in the western slope of the Eastern Andes, as well as in serrania del Baudo. Except the areas from Rio Blanco-SFF Otun Quimbaya and the slopes of Purace to the west, those areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 14,390 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 61 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation.

This near-endemic species has been catalogued by BirdLife International (2016) as of Low Concern (LC) because it is believed it does not approach to the thresholds of Vulnerable (VU) according to the range size, population trend or population size criterion. It is considered to be locally common (McMullan & Donegan 2014, HBW Alive 2016) and its extent of occurrence has been estimated in 66,900 km2 (BirdLife International 2016). Our maps suggest its extent of occurrence just in Colombia is about 37,290 km2, which is greater than considered by other authors previously and includes some areas from where has been recently known in the northern and southern Central Andes in its west slope. However, forested areas have been severely degraded in is potential original geographical distribution as our analyses suggest. Giving that the species uses border and secondary habitats possibly its populations have not been greatly affected. Nonetheless, forest degradation and fragmentation continues along its potential range and therefore we believe it must be considered as Near Threatened (NT) at national level in Colombia.

Often considered conspecific of Urochroa leucura.


Regularized training gain is 2.659, training AUC is 0.982, unregularized training gain is 3.031.

Algorithm terminated after 2000 iterations (64 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

124 presence records used for training.

10123 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 0.050, categorical: 0.250, threshold: 1.000, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: hinge product linear threshold quadratic

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:

11.229-9.742-Cumulative threshold

0.164-0.144-Logistic threshold

0.064-0.070-Fractional predicted area

0.065-0.032-Training omission rate