Campylopterus phainopeplus


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those localities with no coordinates and all records with coordinates laying down in sites with estimated elevations below 280 m and above 3,000 m.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed a areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in serrania del Perija and a very few areas in the central-northern Eastern Andes. These areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 4,539 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 33 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation. This figure may be highly underestimated given the high proportion of shade coffee plantations that might passed as forest.

BirdLife International has categorised this species as Endangered (EN) because its range is small and is known from few localities and it is suspected its range and population are declining given the continuing degradation of forest habitats in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Its breeding range has been estimated in 2,900 km2 (BirdLife International 2017). Nevertheless, this is somehow uncertain as migratory movements of the species in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta are poorly known. Our maps suggests an extent of occurrence of 6,776 km2 not including areas above 3,000 m. According to BirdLife International (2017) the species occupies the zones up to the Paramo, which suggest our figure may underestimate its extent of occurrence. However, it is important to note that our maps suggest the slopes to the west of the sierra are equally suitable for the species, although there are no records coming from that area. BirdLife International (2017) has estimated its population in 1500-7,000 mature individuals based on known records, descriptions of its abundance and known range. Nonetheless, this estimation is very poorly documented. It is believed it occupies premontane forests during the dry season (Dec.-Apr.) and moves to montane forests, at higher elevations, during the wet season (May-Nov.), where its breeds (BirdLife International 2017). Contrary, other authors believe sexes segregate, females spending much of the year at lower elevations (McMullan & Donegan 2014).

Although it is a rare species along its distribution, this species uses secondary vegetation and shade coffee plantations and it is not clear if deforestation has impacted negatively its populations. Equally migratory movements and its general ecology are poorly understood. Similarly to other especies of the genus, this species is in great need of further research of its ecology to define better the threats to its populations.


Regularized training gain is 4.370, training AUC is 0.997, unregularized training gain is 4.984.

Algorithm converged after 80 iterations (0 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

7 presence records used for training.

10007 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 1.000, categorical: 0.545, threshold: 1.930, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: linear

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:


12.115-13.332-Cumulative threshold

0.079-0.091-Logistic threshold

0.014-0.013-Fractional predicted area

0.000-0.143-Training omission rate