Heliangelus mavors


To elaborate our model we removed uncertain localities such as those with no coordinates and a record from Cauca in BioMap, which represents corrupted information. This left us with no records to model the species distribution. We looked for additional records in the literature where we found one hypothetical record from Tota (Hilty & Brown 1986) and one record in EBIRD from 'Delicias' in Venezuela near the border with Colombia. To model the range we transferred this record from Venezuela to the west to Colombia to a point with the same elevation (≈ 1,650) and made up two more points to the southwest and south southeast from it at distances between 1-1.5 km.

The habitat suitability model generated in Maxent showed several areas suitable in climatic terms for this species in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the Alta Guajira, the Eastern Andes and south of the Colombian Masiff. These areas are not known to be occupied by the species and were excluded from the potential distribution map of this hummingbird. Areas predicted as presence around lago Tota were not connected to those in Norte de Santander and therefore were deleted too since there are no other records confirming the presence of the species in that area.

Assuming that the distribution of the species may have filled the complete climatic model generated, its distribution today in remnants of forest is about 1,944 km2, which corresponds to a loss of 62 % of its potential original distribution due to deforestation. Although this species uses edges and secondary vegetation it needs forest to certain extent and therefore possibly deforestation has affected its populations. However, there is no clarity on the status of its populations in Colombia. Similarly to H. clarisse, BirdLife International (2016) recognises the species has a small range (Venezuela and Colombia) but does not believe it approaches to the thresholds to consider it a threatened species. In the specific case of Colombia it is possible that this species approaches the thresholds to be considered Threatened given the small range and fragmented habitat, and possibly its status needs re-evaluation.

Interestingly, there are no known records of the species in Colombia but just 'Bogota skins' and one hypothetical record from Tota in 1977 (Hilty & Brown 1986). There are many records from the Venezuelan Andes (EBIRD 2016), may well be the species does not exit in Colombia or if it exist it definitely must have a very small range, fragmented and very likely must be threatened in the country; very likely it status needs re-evaluation in the country.


Regularized training gain is 3.122, training AUC is 0.998, unregularized training gain is 4.457.

Algorithm converged after 180 iterations (1 seconds).

The follow settings were used during the run:

4 presence records used for training.

10004 points used to determine the Maxent distribution (background points and presence points).

Environmental layers used (all continuous): bio10co bio11co bio12co bio13co bio14co bio15co bio16co bio17co bio18co bio19co bio1co bio2co bio3co bio4co bio5co bio6co bio7co bio8co bio9co

Regularization values: linear/quadratic/product: 1.000, categorical: 0.590, threshold: 1.960, hinge: 0.500

Feature types used: linear

responsecurves: true

jackknife: true

maximumiterations: 2000

'Equal Training Sensitivity and Specificity' and 'Equate Entropy of Thresholded and Original Distributions' thresholds and omission rates:


65.853-13.341-Cumulative threshold

0.711-0.131-Logistic threshold

0.003-0.044-Fractional predicted area

0.000-0.000-Training omission rate